Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert in the field of Order hypothesis;; the Input hypothesis;; and the Affective Filter hypothesis. It is a hypothesis of second-language acquisition theory, and a field of According to the affective filter hypothesis, certain emotions, According to Krashen (), there are two prime issues that. The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean? Krashen believes we should not correct people in the early stages.

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Retrieved 14 September Test your knowledge of Krashen’s Hypotheses with this quiz. Finally, learning is seen to be heavily dependent on the mood of the learner, with learning being impaired if the learner is under stress or does not want to learn the language.

According to Krashen ‘learning’ is less important than ‘acquisition’. This hypothesis suggests that this natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and therefore teachers cannot change the order of a grammatical teaching sequence.

The Affective Filter hypothesis According to Krashen one obstacle that manifests itself during language acquisition is the affective filter; that is a ‘screen’ that is influenced by emotional variables that can prevent learning.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously acquire language, and either written or oral language can be acquired. This is a very common phenomenon. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. According to the Monitor Model, five hypotheses account for the acquisition of a second language: Retrieved from ” https: Views Read Edit View history.

In other words, the teacher talk meets the requirements for comprehensible input and perhaps with hypothesie students” participation the classroom becomes an environment suitable for acquisition. The first is not allowing for a silent period expecting the student to speak before they have received an adequate amount of comprehensible input according to their individual needs. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Caldwellcomprehensible input, defined by Krashen as understanding messages, is indeed the necessary condition for acquisition, but it is not sufficient.


What do Krashen’s Hypotheses look like in the classroom? It is important to involve reading in the language classroom to increase knowledge of the language and the way it is used in real-life contexts. This hypothetical filter does not impact acquisition directly but rather prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain.

In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.

Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Language-learning aptitude Critical period hypothesis Motivation Willingness to communicate Foreign language anxiety Metalinguistic awareness. Learners will crack the speech code only if they receive input that is comprehended at two levels.

Hypotthesis material may be challenged and removed. According to the hypothesis, such self-monitoring and self-correction are the only functions of conscious language learning.

This is an obstacle to fluency. The second is correcting their errors too early-on in the process. Explanation of Hypothesis Application for Teaching The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. Also, the filter is low in regard to the affeftive of explanation, as the students” conscious efforts are usually on the subject matter, on what is being talked about, and not the medium.

How does Krashen believe we can reduce these affective filters? A paradigm shift in foreign language teaching.

The affective filter hypothesis in language learning – LingQ

Look at the cartoon and decide which of Krashen’s Hypotheses apply to this student. Acquisition of language is a natural, intuitiveand subconscious process of which individuals need not be aware. It has, however, inspired much research, and many linguists praise its value. According to Krashen[7] there are two prime issues that prevent the lowering of the affective filter. The most popular competitors are the skill-building hypothesis and the comprehensible output hypothesis.


The hypotheses put primary importance on the comprehensible input CI that language learners are exposed to. The theory underlies Krashen and Terrell ‘s comprehension-based language learning methodology known as the natural approach Multilingualism Heritage language Multi-competence. This is the principle of dual comprehension.

Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful.

He distinguishes those learners that use the ‘monitor’ all the time over-users ; those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge under-users ; and those learners that use the ‘monitor’ appropriately optimal users. Such a claim fails to withstand scrutiny because children also experience differences in non-linguistic variables such as motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety that supposedly account for child-adult differences in second language learning.

In any aspect of education it is always important to create a safe, welcoming environment in which students can learn. References Gass, Susan M. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.

The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar.