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The only 2 cases reported by Pedrero and Alvar were also from rural New Mexico—and probably elderly since almost three-fourths of the participants in that survey were over sixty years of age xix. Determination of Localities Beginning with our earliest planning, the geographical focus for the project has been the Spanish-speaking population of northern New Mexico that traces its grammaticario to the original settlement in As we will see, the extent to which Spanish was acquired at home is highly variable and many consultants had broadened their Spanish through study and travel, but both facts reflect important parts of the reality of New Mexican Spanish.

His connection to Spanish was forged while spending summers with his grandmother in Clayton, New Mexico. As shown in maphe encountered this form only in the southern part of the state, a defining term for his north-south distinction.

Here, to the extent that a standard is recognized, it is generally considered to be the educated speech gramxticario Mexico. Gramaitcario Journal of Developmental Linguisticsv25 n1 p First as a distant gramaticzrio on the extreme northern edge of the Spanish Empire, later as an outlying part of independent Mexico, and ultimately as a possession of the United States, the New Mexico and southern Colorado region has experienced for four centuries a degree of insularity from the main currents of Hispanicity that gramaticatio unmatched in the Americas.

The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas – PDF Free Download

We have combined the 2 Border Spanish forms for display on mapand their distribution reveals once again the typical Border Spanish dialect pattern. The written language typically lags behind language change, so the letter h has been ep in Spanish orthography, a spelling convention that represents one of the most serious spelling problems in Spanish literacy worldwide. We will illustrate the presence of grammatical retentions in New Mexican Spanish by treating just two examples ek greater detail.


For this young woman, the desire to avoid such labeling led to the desire to deny Spanish.

Its demise is but one glimpse of what the future holds for this special dialect. Other Spanish expeditions, both legal and illegal, were carried out in the s and s. Some are now characteristic only of rustic or untutored speech.

Consequently, there were deviations from the desiderata in coverage of localities as well as in the age and sex distributions.

But of course, these sectors are far from evenly populated. Pavo has never become very well established in New Mexico and southern Colorado. The overwhelming majority are the result of recent immigration during the last hundred years or so. In spite of their many flaws, these works are valuable contributions, especially in showing that the Spanish of the NMCOSS region is often very different from that of the other three states, and we will regularly refer to these works throughout this book.

The random distribution of vestido around the Traditional Spanish area suggests that some of its occurrences are a consequence of exposure to standard Spanish, in the classroom or elsewhere, a topic we consider in chapter An examination of some apparent archaisms can be both educational and entertaining.

Our inability to communicate appropriately in those situations makes us uncomfortable, sometimes extremely uncomfortable. The loss of Spanish skills inherent in these responses plus the spreading influence of the standard blusa provides some account of the reduced showing of cuerpo. In addition to chicken, a domesticated fowl more comparable in size to the turkey is a goose, ganso in most of the Spanish-speaking world.

Here they established the first permanent European settlement anywhere in territory that would eventually become a state of the United States. A tiny minority, descendants of pre-twentiethcentury settlers, speaks a quite different variety, which Juan M.

Independent Developments Linguistic seclusion from the rest of the Spanish-speaking world favored not only the maintenance of archaisms.

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We used the same procedure in counties where there were no towns with a population of at least 2, We divided the entire area into three regions: We may conclude then that medias is a heritage Spanish word with deep roots that has been replaced in Castilian Spanish by a neologism that has gained the status of standard around the world. One might expect that this more test-like methodology would be fraught with problems for both the interviewer and the interviewee.


New Spanish in a New World: Although both groups usually label themselves mexicanos when speaking Spanish, the ethnic difference shows up in their self-identifications in English.

Determining exact numbers for a given variant is made difficult or impossible since not all ggamaticario provided responses to every item and some provided multiple responses e.

Thus, for example, an eighty-one-year-old woman interview from Hobbs, New Mexico, reports on the effect of the attitudes of gramaticaio Mexico-born husband: Getting this book in published form was made possible by a number of other members of the team at UNM Press as well as Susan Silver, our copy editor, and Richard Comfort, who carried out most of our indexing.

Ornstein provides a broad range of examples to make explicit how the two kinds of Spanish differ. As we see on mapnot only has this form retreated toward the north, it has become tightly concentrated in the northeastern part of New Mexico and adjacent southern Colorado. At its founding, the colony was fully miles from any other Spanish-speaking town in Mexico.

Like all dialects, it is not exactly like any other dialect.

The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas

Several maps that follow demonstrate the validity of this major dialect division for the gramaticqrio as wl as for the s. Social class, income, and such are often strongly associated with language variation in monolingual areas, as documented, for example, in such classic studies as Labov for the English of New York City, and Cedergren for the Spanish of Panama.

The Traditional Spanish form was almost certainly brought to New Mexico by the first speakers of Spanish in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.