Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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Problems (Aristotle) – Wikipedia

If urine, therefore, is allowed to flow it becomes 15 greater in quantity, but, if it is checked, it takes on colour 1 more readily ; and so if it has already taken on this character 2 by concoction, this can be better observed if the flow of urine is stopped and light thus refracted and a mirror formed. If, therefore, it sinks in, the body is more softened ; for oil is naturally hot, and hot things have a drying and hardening effect, and dryness and hardness are inexpedient in fatigue ; but when 10 applied with water the oil has a less drying effect.

For the mind often controls the body as a whole, but does not control certain parts of it, when they have been set in motion in a certain way, the heart, for example, and the sexual organ. The Effects of Touch.

ARISTOTLE, Problems | Loeb Classical Library

We see the same thing in athletes and generally amongst those who are in a healthy condition ; for they either are not afflicted problemtaa disease, or, if they are, they rapidly succumb, for they only become ill from some serious cause.

Is it because every rhythm is measured by a definite movement, and the movement at regular intervals which occurs in running is of this nature? For when liquid is transformed into air, much air is formed out of little liquid ; for what is excreted in liquid aritotle is more abundant. For, mark you, where there is a great fire, a flame cannot burn ; for the great fire attracts and b absorbs the little fire.

G This second question and the suggested solution are repeated in chapter 25, and aristolte two passages can be emended from one another.

Moreover unmixed wine concocts everything else as well as itself. Or is it because sweat is unconcocted moisture, and such moisture resides in the upper parts because the process of its composition takes place there? For the whole body becomes a burden ; and so the part aristotlf which it all rests and with which we raise it that is, the legs feels the strain most.

Why is it that, whereas arisgotle intercourse takes place 7 by means of heat, and fear and death have a cooling effect, 25 yet semen is sometimes emitted by those who are frightened BOOK IV.

For walking uphill causes most strain to the loins whereas 30 walking downhill is most trying to the thighs, for the whole weight falls upon them and so usually causes fatigue in them ; for as they are forcibly carried 2 upwards in aristote un natural manner, heat is engendered.

Is it because, being accompanied by fever, they are acute because they are violent, and violence is unnatural? These excretions, being 30 thick and containing harmful humours of an acid, bitter, and salty nature, cannot be expelled owing to their thick ness, but swell up through the flesh and cause sores owing to the bitterness of the humour which they contain.


For the hair of the head and the eyebrows and eyelashes are congenital hair ; and of these the eyebrows alone sometimes grow thicker with advancing years the reason for this has been stated else where4 while the hair of the head and the eyelashes both fail problwmata the same cause, viz.

Now wine has the effect of repression ; 1 while water is light and not un pleasant, and, therefore, being light 2 it quickly penetrates downwards, but, not being unpleasant, it does not cause heartburn.

Why is it that rue and certain unguents give the per- 13 spiration an evil odour?

Is it because fat melts when heated, and the movement causes heat, whereas flesh does not melt? Is it because that which is sweet is both soothing and adhesive which is the reason 35 why it blocks up the poreswhile that which is bitter has a roughening effect?

For it is the pleasure more than anything else which incites animals to sexual intercourse. Is it because it has a drying effect and stops the discharge of excretions without 3 making a scab or causing J 5 decay of the flesh? For the above-mentioned reasons then the vision does not travel to a distance. Why is it that, although perspiration is caused by heat, 36 we perspire less in front of a large fire?

In eunuchs the legs swell and the bowels are easily relaxed, which shows that the moisture has moved downwards. For it is there problemmata the unconcocted moisture settles ; for the bladder is a receptacle for any moisture which is not concocted in the stomach ; and such moisture does not remain there, but passes away without undergoing or causing any change.

Why is it that drugs, and bitter and evil-smelling sub- 47 stances generally, have a purgative aristotls Thus the upper parts of the body are cleared out ” because the impurities are carried to the lower parts, and these become full of excretions which easily putrefy. Problemata is an Aristotelian or possibly pseudo-Aristotelianas its authenticity has been questioned [ citation needed ]collection of problems written in a aristotoe and answer format. Why do we perspire more on the back than on the front 14 of the body?

Is it because in the former owing to their desire, and in the latter owing to arsitotle mutilation, the upper parts of the body become drier than they ought to be, and this is most noticeable in those organs which have delicate work to do, such as aristktle eye? Is it true that while motion has this 2 effect, yet quick motion, owing to the strain and the holding of the breath which it involves, causes heat in the head and inflates the veins in it and renders them liable to be affected 1 5 by external influences, such as cold and heat, and by the contents of the trunk ; 3 and that if these can enter the head, disease is necessarily engendered in that region?

For this reason it is necessary to engender great heat in the body, because fever has but little fire in it. On the other hand, those who are addicted to drinking, if they are not in a lean condition, often become dry from drinking a large quantity at a time ; for both wine and life 3 seem to be of porblemata nature of hot things, whereas death is a process of cooling. Aaristotle, in our opinion, is movement over hill country, and arietotle over level ground is the contrary.


In those whose ducts are not in a natural condition, owing either 1 And in this case the object is not large and is therefore easily moved.

Problems, Volume I

Further, the viscous and adhesive matter is expelled problemat the moisture, because it mingles with it, but it cannot be expelled with the breath ; 5 and it is this thick matter in particular that causes pain. As the body cools, the light humours are carried into the bladder. Why is that the feet of those who are nervous perspire 26 35 and not the face? All these possible causes are present. Why problemaga drunkards tremble, and the more so the more 26 they drink unmixed wine?

Now barley-gruel has these qualities ; for, because it prlblemata moist rather than substantial, it gives nourishment which 10 is small in bulk and at the same time has a cooling effect.

On even ground, therefore, the raising and planting of the foot is a slight but frequent movement, while the opposite occurs on uneven ground. And why do those who drink from large vessels become less drunk? Is the cause the same in both cases, namely, that they cause them by setting up liquefaction and stop them by drying them up? Copper aristogle silver and 35 the like, although they are not concocted by animal heat, are not easily dissolved in the stomach.

Or is it because all respiration without exception takes 1 Cp. How can the presence of an abscess be diagnosed? This breath, therefore, is drawn down, making him quiver, as it were dragging at him beneath by its movement, and leaves him little control over the most distant part of his body in this case over his heels. Or is it aeistotle, just as we cannot speak arisyotle water through lack of air, 25 so we cannot speak when we take liquid agistotle the mouth?

Thus under the influence of fright the heat makes its way downwards, and at death it travels upwards from below, and, because it creates a state of moisture by its warmth, it causes the emission of semen. Whoever the author, he may also have been building on or responding to the discussions of melancholy of Diocles of Carystus see frs. Also people are least inclined for sexual intercourse after food and are recommended to take a heavy midday meal and a light supper with a view to it, for the heat and moisture move upwards when the food is unconcocted and down wards when it is concocted ; and the semen is formed from concocted prblemata.