4nec2\exe” folder, in your Word or Wordpad text editor. Other recommended sources for NEC related informations are the Nec-2 and Nec-4 user-manuals and . 4NEC2 is a freeware antenna simulation software program. The program can be used to model an antenna, and then determine through. Antenna Modeling With 4NEC2. Presented to HOTARC. By Craig Weixelbaum. May 22, Basic Modeling Approach using 4Nec2. The goals of this

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If the model has symmetry, as far as possible the axes of the coordinate system will be used as axes of symmetry.

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If the wire is not paralell to the ground, the height of the end nearest to the ground will be considered. The program supports about segments out of the box I think, but download the engine files from the same 4nec2 website and you can use up to segments! This enables one to add real transmission line loss for matching SWR of a manuao system to simulation.

You can read a thousand pages about segmenting and just one input chart speaks a thousand words. In regards of the maximum length of the segments Lsmaxthe following restrictions related to the wavelength are specified.

The Other Edge of the Sword”. This displays the antenna and models its output.

Coordinate system used in 4Nec2. Then, if that variable length for example needs changing, it can be changed in one place in the model much like a software program.


In the case of the horizontal wires, it is necessary to observe a height over the ground of at least one tenth of the working wavelength. His work in 4NEC2 will non-the-less continue to serve hams indefinitely. The wires of the model cannot touch the fast ground. Conventions for model representation. The distribution of currents may be asymmetric and the values of 4ned2 input impedance of the antenna may be inaccurate. An elevation of 90 degrees will correspond to the perpendicular manuaal the ground plane.


Study and Experiences ESP. In theory, the average gain of a lossless antenna, considering an adequate sampling in all the possible directions of radiation, must be equal to 1. Once the model has been defined, mamual programs implementing the NEC-2 algorithm provide options for geometric validation in order to look for non-connected wires or incorrect crossings, as well as segment validation options to verify whether the rules described in the previous sections are observed. It is advisable for the distance between them to be at least several wire diameters as well [Ref.

Why is this manuxl The results of the AGT are interpreted in this way [Ref. You need symbols so you can give them to the optimiser to vary. This free software does everything and more the commercial versions do! Version 2 Aug In this view one can show the antenna, and, its full 3D, color coded in terms of dBi gain, visual view. For each case, specifications are provided regarding whether the wires may touch ground or not and in the negative case at which height over ground must be placed.

This program is just awesome for experimenting with antennas in software. In every case apart from the free space, it is necessary to take into account the diameter of the wires: On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account that if the total number of segments in a model is very high, the maximum limit which some programs may impose can be reached [Ref.


This is useful for computing mutual impedance for example. In the case of wideband or multiband antennas operating between a minimum frequency Fmin and a maximum frequency Fmax, I suggest the following strategy of design, for example with the help of a spreadsheet.

Note that in the case of multiband or wideband antennas, the segment density will be different for each working frequency.

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Press the space bar to toggle between side and top view. Two parallel or 4nce2 parallel wires very close of each other must have their segments aligned [Ref. The azimuth angles are measured clockwise from the Y axis towards the X axis.

Results of the average gain test in a 4Nec2 model. Contact the site with comments or questions. When I first ran this program I almost put it in the too hard basket. The convergency test allows to determine the optimum number 4enc2 segments to be used in a particular model. I have used this capability to compare and plot my actual antenna with the model antenna and you can see results on my qrz. With the fast ground type, NEC-2 uses a method based on complex reflection coefficients.

Program Description – Code”. On the other hand, take into account that not all the most known antenna simulation programs among all the available as shareware are based on this algorithm.